Microlift from CX Magz

Successful cross country flying has a deceptively simple recipe: avoid landing as long as you can. But when you´ve done everything in the book, by the book, and hunger for a higher education, come fine-tune all your senses through the mystical arts of microlift flying, dynamic gust soaring and glide maximization. Adrian Thomas enters a Zen-like state.


Whatever the wing, some pilots always glide better than others, letting the glider flow through turbulence, finding better lines, gaining height and speed from air movements that pitch others back and stop them dead.
But beyond that, on another level of flying, is the fabled microlift technique; dynamic soaring that allows albatrosses to make 1000km out and return foraging trips across the Southern Atlantic. Microlift is an aspect of soaring flight that is just beginning to be explored, in an experimental way, by free fliers like Gary Osoba.
Some aspects of microlift flying require negative G loading, or extreme speeds, and are unavailable to hang-gliders or paragliders. Others aspects require the low flight speeds, low sink rates, agility and sensitivity to local air movements that our craft offer, especially given their ability to land virtually anywhere when it all goes horribly wrong.

Still air glide

The air is rarely really still, but when it is, on final glide late in the day or on a winter sled ride, some pilots always glide better than others, even on the same wing. There isn’t any energy available from air movements, so there is only one way to maximize still-air glide; by minimizing the energy lost to the air.
Almost all wings; sailplanes, rigids, hang-gliders, or paragliders, give maximum glide in steady flight at a constant speed, usually trim speed or a little higher. Any movement of the wing accelerates the air flowing round it, and that costs energy.
For a glider, the only source of energy is potential energy, extracted from gravity by losing height. So any movement of the wing loses height, therefore degrading glide. The faster the movement, the higher the acceleration, the more energy is stirred into the air and the greater the height lost.
Fluid smoothness is the secret to maximizing glide in still air. We need to minimize the movement of the wing in order to maximize its glide. The best pilots’ wings move steadily through the air, with fluid motions, and no oscillations.
Nothing kills glide more effectively than an oscillating wing, but the long lines of paragliders make them natural pendulums, and tightening the VB to maximize glide on a hang-glider reduces directional stability and can lead to pilot-induced oscillations. The main difference between good pilots and the best pilots is their ability to damp out oscillations with the least effort in the shortest time.
Fortunately this key skill is also one of the easiest to practice because oscillations are so easy to trigger on a hang-glider or paraglider. In either case the principle is the same: select a flight speed, deliberately trigger an oscillation, and find the fastest, most efficient way to damp it out.
On a paraglider simply stab on the brakes to pitch the glider back, then release them so it pitches forwards and starts oscillating. How little brake do you need to catch it at the top of the surge? When is the best time to apply brake? Is it best to use an abrupt stab of brake at the right time or a little brake applied earlier and for longer?
Any change in speed or vertical air movement causes pitch oscillations. Damping them quickly makes a big difference to performance. Oscillations in yaw or roll are just as damaging but it is just as easy to induce them deliberately to practice counteracting them even while ground handling.
Only one thing kills glide more effectively than an oscillating wing and that’s a steeply banked wing. In still air if you have to turn a wide, sweeping, gently banked turn minimizes height loss.
How you minimize losses in turns varies from wing to wing. On most wings the most efficient technique is one recommended by Bob Drury: "Leave the brakes alone, clench one buttock and wait." Eventually this gets you pointing the right way with minimum fuss and minimum height lost in the turn.

Microlift lines

In goal you often hear pilots talk about good and bad lines. Convergence lines are common in the mountains, where they may be correlated with ground features and may occur in the same place day after day. These can be so reliable that locals can accurately predict their positions and may even have drawn up maps.
Over the flatlands thermic convergence lines are t also common, but their positions can’t be predicted. Lines have to be found by feel. For me this hunt for an invisible, noiseless, scentless quarry is perhaps the most exciting thing in cross-country flying. Finding good lines and following them across the terrain is an extraordinary experience that requires an almost Zen-like full attention of all the senses.
I can find no written advice on microlift technique for paragliders, but this is what works for me. When setting off on glide towards a distant target, keep the chest strap wide to maximize the sensitivity of the harness. Focus on the subtle differences in lift between the two risers. You are trying to sense the lift distribution across the wing. You may find holding the stabilizer lines or the outside C or D’s might give a bit more sensitivity.
If the lift lines are strong it may even be worth applying brake to feel what’s going on, but remember, brake kills glide. The aim is to weight-shift, not just to keep the risers level, but to turn towards the strongest lift, and away from the sink. The path can become quite erratic, with significant deviations from the track.
According to Gary Osoba, sailplanes like the Carbon Dragon and Sparrowhawk are designed for this kind of flying and are optimized to allow rapid yawing movements to stay on the line. The Bateleur Eagle, Black Buzzard and Turkey Vulture all exploit this kind of lift, and their short tails and tapered wings are well designed for the kind of rapid yawing turns that are required.
Flying along a really good line can seem like balancing on a knife-edge. It is very easy to fall off. Lines often seem to be trying to push you sideways away from them. If lines are local thermic convergence, then this really could be the case, particularly close to the top of the convection where the lines diverge at an inversion layer. The narrow band of rising air would cause the wing to bank away from the convergence line as you approach it.
Dynamic microlift: soaring gusts and turbulence
Energy can be extracted from any situation where the air velocity changes over a short distance, or even over a short time. The rotor behind a sharp edged ridge, for instance, provides a particularly dramatic change in velocity across a short distance. a situation radio-control pilots frequently use by diving through it and converting speed to height.
The key is the delta V, the change in velocity between the wind flowing over the ridge and the slower upwind flow in the rotor. The maximum velocity that can be obtained by using dynamic soaring is produced when the rate of energy gained from dynamic soaring equals the rate of energy dissipation in the manoeuvre.
Imagine you are flying through turbulent air with regular up and downdrafts. If the rate of change of velocity in the gusts is fast enough, energy can be extracted by reacting in the appropriate way to the gusts as they arrive.
The process has been called dynamic microlift soaring by Gary Osoba (see, for example, www.isd.net/sadkins/20hourworkweek.htm).
Birds flap their wings to generate thrust. On the downstroke, the angle of attack is adjusted so that the net lift acts upwards and forwards. On the upstroke the angle of attack is adjusted so that the net lift acts upwards and backwards.
The upward components add up to enough lift to balance weight. The difference between the forward force, generated on the downstroke, and the backward force on the upstroke produces enough thrust to balance drag.
The downstroke is equivalent to an upward gust. The upstroke is equivalent to a downward gust. To generate thrust through microlift technique, lift generated during the upward gust must be more than the lift generated during the downward gust. This fits well with usual ’speed to fly’ practice - slow down in the updrafts and speed up in the downdrafts, but the transitions need to be flown much more aggressively than that.
The first reaction of a paraglider to an updraft is to dramatically pitch back, generating drag and slowing the wing down. Exactly the opposite is required. To extract as much energy from an updraft as possible, accelerate the glider hard as you hit the updraft, preventing it from pitching back. Then slow down to maximize the height gain in the updraft without slowing below speed-to-fly.
At the end of the updraft, as you hit a downdraft the glider will pitch forward. As you swing through under the glider, push the speed bar hard to damp out the surge. Done correctly, this can allow you to reach full speed as quickly as possible, minimizing the time spent accelerating and as well as the total time spent in sinking air.

Microlift: the future

Microlift techniques were almost unheard of a decade ago. Now there are radio modellers who do almost no other kind of flying. There are full size sailplanes specifically designed for microlift flight, and there are scientific research papers being written on the subject.
Paragliders are almost ideally designed for microlift flight. Their low airspeed means that the delta V available from gusts is relatively high even in light winds. The agility and manoeuvrability of paragliders means they can exploit relatively small gust fields and lines of lift. The ability of paragliders to land almost anywhere means that the microlift lines above the superheated air close to the ground are accessible. There are more ways to stay in the air than just ridge-lift and thermals!











2. 我还真没想过怎么在这种它自己转的情况下改出螺旋。下次有高度我还得试试主动进去。



Icaristics:Flying in the lee 在背风处飞行

Cross Country 专栏文章
原作:Bruce Goldsmith  

Every pilot learns at paragliding school not to fly in the lee side. Flying in the lee is obviously dangerous because of lee side turbulence and rotor. This rotor can be violent leading to collapses and accidents. In the lee side even a reserve parachute may not work if the air is too turbulent.However, a meteorologist once told me that all thermals start in the lee side and if you fly in major competitions you’ll see top pilots flying in the lee on a regular basis. And what about protected flying sites such as Greolieres where you often fly the lee side? Why is it sometimes perfectly safe to fly in the lee and at other times extremely dangerous? And what exactly is conical hill convergence?None of these are easy questions to answer, but I hope that this article will give answers to at least some of these questions.

每一个滑翔学校都教育学生不要去背风面飞行--“背风面永远充满了危险。” 背风面存在着许多涡流和乱流,这些涡流会造成夹页和事故,在特别乱的地方,连你的备份救生伞都会“夹页”。但是,气象学者告诉我们,世界上所有的热气流都 是在背风面生成的。想想那些著名的背风场地,如我国的云南大理,事实如此。为什么某些时候我们可以在背风面安然自得,而另一些时候背风面却充满了危险?这 些都不是简单的问题,希望Bruce能作新长征路上的一盏明灯,

Every thermal starts in rotor 在涡流中诞生的热气流

Thermals start when the sun heats the air unevenly. If the wind blows constantly and smoothly over the ground, then the ground will heat the air in a similarly smooth and constant fashion, which is not ideal for thermal formation. What we need for thermals to form are differences in the air temperature. As soon as you introduce an obstruction into the airflow such as a house, a fence or a hill, you will get an area of turbulence behind the obstruction. Sometimes the obstruction allows the air to remain still for a time, protected from the wind, allowing the air a chance to warm up. Then the turbulence may separate the bubble of warm air from the ground releasing it into the wind above as a thermal. The same thing can happen on a small or large scale, so you may get thermals being kicked off behind a fence, a house or a hill as shown in the diagram. You can even get wind shadows or rotor behind a thermal itself, which can act as an obstruction to the prevailing wind.
热气流的诞 生归功于太阳对地表的不均匀加热。当懒洋洋太阳无聊地晒着大地万物时,空气被加热了,由于地表的颜色质地不同导致这个加热过程并不均匀。如果此 时有持续柔和的风来搅拌空气的话,会造成均匀加热的效果。风杀死了热气流,这可不是我们所需要的。当你将一所房屋,一棵树或一个山丘放置在风的前进道路 时,在这些障碍物的背面我们得到一块“乱流区”。 有时候障碍物会让空气静止,防止风的搅拌。当空气有机会得到足够的热量后,在“乱流”的作用下,热气泡离开地面射向无垠的蓝天。 这种效果可大可小, 涡流可以在篱笆后面产生,也可以在莽山的背后咆哮。你甚至可以在一个热气流的“影子”中感觉到“涡流”的存在,因为热气流团阻碍了风的前进。

So the lesson to be learnt is that rotor can be just as much a friend to the thermal pilot as a hazard.

Size Matters 尺寸很重要

It’s difficult to say when it is safe to fly in the lee side of an obstruction. The simple rule is - if in doubt, don’t! That is of course the ’cover your arse/limited liability’ answer that you can get from any paragliding school or textbook. However, this doesn’t really solve our problem... it’s just the safe answer. My own personal experience says that the single most important factor is the size of the hill. The bigger the hill or mountain, the more protection it will offer.
As an example, you can almost never fly in the lee side in the UK where the hills rarely reach more than 500m high. On the other hand, in Tenerife, nearly all the flying is done on the lee side of Mount Tiede which towers to over 3000m (e.g. the site of Taucho). You can even fly in the lee side in Tenerife when the prevailing wind is as much as 50km/h, however, you can expect strong lee side thermals and strong winds if you stray outside the protected area.
首先,你要知道,在背风面很难说那里是安全的。 最简单的规则是:“如果你怀疑那地方不安全,那你就永远不要去。” 靠这个答案,你能确保屁股安全落地,每一家滑翔伞学校都会这样回答你。但这种答案并不能解决我们的问题。以我个人的经验来说---尺寸很重要。越是大型的 山脉越安全。
举例来说,没人在英国或莽山后面的小沟里折腾。 这种的山脉也就500米的高,不足以提供保护。而在Tenerife,几乎所有的飞行场地都在背风面,这座山脉有3000米高,你甚至可以 在风速达到50公里时还安全的游弋,此时你可以感受强大的上升和……凛冽的飓风--如果你飞到保护区之外的话。在我国的云南大理也有同样的场地。

Wind Strength 风速

The lighter the wind, the less dangerous flying in the lee side is likely to be. Wind strength is extremely important when trying to fly safely in the lee. Flying in the lee in a 5km/h wind should pose very little problem, but if the wind is greater than 20km/h, then leeside flying is likely to be extremely hazardous and dangerous.

Solar Heating 阳光烹调涡流

Thermal heating of the lee side makes things a lot safer. This means that even if the air is turbulent on the lee side, it’s being heated by the sun and so the air will generally have an upwards motion. This is also the case in Tenerife where the site of Taucho faces southwest and into the afternoon sun. Other sites such as Greolieres and Monaco benefit from a similar thermal-powered protection.

Sea Breezes 海风
If the heating is combined with a sea breeze or a valley wind system, then the protection from the prevailing wind is even greater. The presence of the sea tends to lead to a larger scale air movement than simple rotor, so helping to make the air less turbulent.

Conical Hill Convergence 圆锥形山的收敛

When air flows round an isolated hill or mountain, the air divides on the upwind side of the hill and then flows together again on the downwind side. The area in front of the hill is therefore an area of divergence, and the area behind the hill is an area of convergence. Therefore, where the air is converging, it can produce lift, especially if there’s some thermic activity as well that helps produce some upward movement in the air when the air converges. If the air is not going up due to thermal activity, then it may be falling just as strongly as it could be rising.

Diagrams 1 and 2 show how conical hill convergence works. The diagrams show how you can get an area of lift downwind from a hill rather than an area of rotor, which is normally what you would expect, as shown in diagram 3. There are many different factors resulting in lift behind a hill, rather than rotor. Factors that help you get lift are:
1. The size of the hill, the bigger the better.
2. Heating from the sun on the downwind side of the hill.
3. The stability of the air. If the air is unstable, the air may flow over the top of the hill instead of round the side, meaning that it will come crashing down in an area of sink behind the hill. A layer of stable can help stop the air displacing vertically in front of the hill can help.
4. The exact shape of the hill.
1. 山的大小,越大越安全。
2. 阳光直射背风面。
3. 稳定的空气,如果空气不稳定,气流会从山顶而不是侧面吹向山后并砸落地面,这时背风面存在强烈的下降乱流。所以我们需要稳定的空气层阻止风在山前垂直运动和翻山而过。
4. 山的形状很重要。这就是为什么活佛Alex会在林州大沟里飞。

Summary 总结


The main factors to consider in flying in the lee are:

1. Wind strength 风的强度
2. Size of the obstruction 山的大小
3. Solar heating on the lee side 阳光直射加热背风面
4. Air stability 稳定的空气
5. Shape of the hill 山的形状
6. Sea breeze or valley wind considerations 海风或山谷风的作用

There can be no hard and fast rule as to whether if it's safe for flying in the lee, everyone must make their own decisions based on their personal skill level and their ability to cope with any turbulence they are likely to encounter.

One last consideration is that it’s often the edge of the lee side which is the most dangerous area. If you are completely in the lee, you may be fully protected - but if you’re at the edge of the protected area, then you may well encounter the maximum amount of turbulence. If you intend to fly in a protected area you need to go all the way into the lee. It’s often more dangerous to test out the waters by feeling around the edge of the protected area than by flying all the way into it.
最后要注意的一点,背风区的边缘往往是最危险的地方。如果你整个伞都在背风区内,那么你会得到很好的保护,如果你在边缘上晃悠,那么你会遭遇到该地区最强烈 的乱流。所以说,如果您决定飞背风坡,那您就得拿出刘胡兰董存瑞精神,直接杀将进去。人世间最危险的事情莫过于在背风区边上试水,所谓当断不断反受其乱。

One final word. Lee side flying is only for very experienced pilots, or for pilots under the instruction of a very experienced pilot flying in controlled conditions. Please take all possible precautions when considering flying in the lee.

作 者Bruce Goldsmith是一位天才飞行员,他是世界顶尖的竞赛飞行员并设计过许多伞翼。其实Bruce本身是一位专业工程师,也是Airwave品牌的创造者 之一。他设计的第一顶伞Black Magic于1989年问世,之后他设计了Taboo, Voodoo, Jive, Samba, Duet, Rave, Rave Race, Alto XM, Harmony, XMX, Fusion, XXX 和 Duplex。其中XXX曾经在 World Championships(世界锦标赛)法国站中获得一举囊括前三名,Bruce在次年获得了英国冠军。接下来的18个月中Bruce离开了 Airwave着手创建Ozone,作为Ozone的设计者,Bruce设计了一些列成功的伞翼,包括Electron, Proton, Cosmic Rider 和 Octane。1999年Bruce使用自己设计的Proton(质子)在PWC世界杯系列赛事中独占鳌头,最终获得总冠军。在2000年3月Bruce 离开了Ozone公司,回到了他的“故乡”--Airwave。十多年来,Burce一直在为Cross Country杂志撰写专栏Icaristics。Bruce也曾经与Barney Barnes合作拍摄过一部安全题材的滑翔伞电影"Instability"(不稳定性)。



克罗地亚的生还者 (Cross Country)

1997年 7月26日,当天我有一股不该飞的预感。Mako 和我早上6点醒来,麻利地整理好装备,冲了一个澡,然后就向比赛场地--Buzet进发。天气看上去并不太好。我们在雨中驱车前进,车内的温度表显示外界 温度为16摄氏度,和其他年份的这个时间相比,温度偏低。 这是克罗地亚第一次正式滑翔比赛。当我们赶到比赛场地时,大队人马已经到齐了,有Boris, Kruno, Karlo, Danko, Bozo, Radovan, Srecko, Leo, Zlatibor, Joza and Sandi,共11人。我们碰在一起,喝杯咖啡,闲聊了一会儿。我属于大会的主办委员会方面的。我们都同意到起飞场地,等待午前的出发。我跟Karlo开 车,我们开始向起飞场--Raspadalica进发。

这是我第一次在这里飞行。起飞场朝南,海拔高度560米,宽度足够同时平铺4具伞,但长度 相对比较短和陡峭起飞场下方100米处有一条铁路。天气很热,大约27摄氏度,1/4的天空布满着优美的云朵。我们同意按计划进行预定的比赛计划,向飞行 员们做了一个简短的赛前说明。 预定开窗时间是下午2点30分,方向标将铺在铁路下方的一块草地上。第一个转弯点在Crnica教堂,终点就在Buzet西北方向。我离开了人群,集中精 力放松一下,想象着完美顺利的起飞和良好的飞行条件状况。那天如果是我一个人,我是不会飞的。一种难以表达的莫名其妙的直觉警告在我大脑中闪现,但是我是 克罗地亚规模最大和活动最多的俱乐部的校长,如果我无缘无故地不飞,大家会对我有想法的。

Leo第一个起飞,然后是Danko。我穿着一条短裤, 一件新的T恤衫,一件白色棉衬衣和一件薄防风夹克。我把Aircotec Top 导航表挂在左腿上,调校好对讲机的频率,又检查了一遍副伞,以防万一要用得着她。我2点05分起飞,飞行状况很好。第一次爬升后,导航表显示风向西西南, 风速16公里/小时。我们沿着山脊飞,不断有热气流从风中分离出来。尽管天气很热,我还是从旁边的袋子里拿出手套戴上。我们沿着山脊飞到2点25分,还有 5分钟就要铺地标了。 东面的天空,我们能看到美丽的Ucka山,山旁边有一块浓云在那里倾泻着大雨。我想它应该不会影响到我们,因为云距离我们有20公里远并且是在下风处。

比 赛开窗前10分钟,我高度仍然维持得很好,持续稳定的热气流从0.5米/秒到3米/秒都有。2点25分,Danko,我的飞行教练,和地面工作人员简要地 通报了一下飞行情况。经过一段对话,他们决定取消比赛飞行任务。原因是他们发现在北面几公里远的Zbevnica山(海拔1014米)的上空异常迅速变化 的天气。对讲机里传来通知:比赛已经取消,请准备着陆。听起来很平静,既不匆忙又不慌张,我就向南朝太阳和棉花一样的白云飞去,没有察觉到背面北方的正在 翻滚变化的黑色魔怪。 Leo在我西南150米处,比我高50米。我注意到Danko和Karlo在西面高处,都拉着双边。其他的人都在后面的什么位置,有在我北边的,也有在东 北边的。2点30分我的高度在1300米,开始拉今天飞行中的第一次B组失速降低高度。当我以7米/秒的速度一直下降到1000米的高度时,伞衣从B组失 速状态变了形,象一朵蔷薇或玫瑰花结的形状,好象伞翼翼尖前冲,前沿塌陷下来的样子。我并太喜欢这样,看上去太吓人了。于是我松开B组,伞衣重新充气和恢 复刚性后,再次拉下B组。过了几分钟,我看了一下高度表,使我感到惊愕的是我在以2米/秒的速率在上升。我抬头上望,看到Leo已经被吸入云底,云底的高 度已经降低到只有1300米了。就在Leo进云前的一刹那,他还给我照了一张相。又过了数秒钟,我拉着B组以5米/秒的速率上升,刺穿云底,进入了一个白 茫茫的世界。

这个时候我的心态特别的平静。我离云边很近而且GPS导航功能都正常。瞄准正南冲出云区应该不是一个 大问题,但是这使我丧失了宝贵的时间,我对正航向,全加速状态慢慢地消耗着时间。但想仅靠罗盘就准确定向并不太容易。由于使用罗盘耽误了时间,我发现虽然 我 的滑翔伞面向南方,但是实际上我的运动方向是向北。我简直不敢相信我的眼睛。紧接着,高度表的上升报警声开始狂叫,以10米/秒的上升速率在颤抖狂 叫。

我的心里毫无畏惧,自从我 飞伞以来第一次拉下伞翼前缘,就象黑暗的魔鬼紧紧地握住我一样。但是,即使这样使整个前缘扣下,我的上升速率依然未变。一个念头在我脑海中闪现: Davor,你被吸进积雨云了。我以前也看过许多事故报告,但是现在却记不起任何一个生还结果的报告。湿气开始渗透我的衣服,接着开始下雨,雨在我穿的夏 装上开始结冰。

我 的头脑意识状态现在出奇的平静和松弛。我不再关注对讲机里传来的毫无作用的,充满恐慌的警告和劝告声。相反,我的头脑中全部只被一个念头占据着:我必须暖 和起来。我不得不想办法使自己免受风、雨和冰的侵扰,用什么东西把我裹起来,否则我会冻僵的。我松开双手,使伞翼前缘恢复正常,准备抛出副伞,这样我就可 以把主伞拉回来,把身体裹起来,多少可以起到一点保护作用。当我准备抛副伞时,高度表的上升警告声开始发狂,上升速率达到18米/秒。我拖了拖左面的A组 组带,伞绳柔软无力,开始进入螺旋。我紧紧握住座带右侧副伞的抛射手柄,用力向外撕开,往黑暗中高高地抛去。

恐怖,纯粹的恐惧,副伞悬在上面摇摇 摆摆,在伞绳的末端没有完全张开,而主伞已经失控,在我左侧象一个蝴蝶结一样翻滚着。我仍旧在以可怕的速度在上升,副伞在这一端时间里才完全张开。数秒钟 后,我听到一声低沉的破裂声,看到副伞已经超过主伞张开了。感谢上帝!用一股爆发出来的激素能量,我用胳膊和拳头费力地把主伞拉了回来,用湿漉漉的尼龙伞 布包住颤抖裸露的双腿。

我用对讲机告诉其他人我还活着,高度4500米,副伞张开,仍以10米/秒的速率在上升。那是我最后一次童话。事后, Boris告诉我他对从对讲机里传来的高度表上升报警的尖叫声感到特别惊骇。而我的话音听起来却很和缓。对讲机回复道:"Davor,Davor,回话! "我亲爱的朋友啊,我想,我现在不能再回答你了,因为我需要保存任何一丝体力,也许就是这一点点体力,就关系着我的生死命运。

我想起了一个事故报 告,是关于开副伞长时间下降过程中,副伞发生扭曲缠绕。但是,我抬头上看,捷克的Sky System 32型副伞状态稳定,伞绳也紧紧地绷紧着。又过了数秒钟,我对副伞建立起了信心。冰雹从四面八方开始击打我,敲打着我的头盔,座带和伞翼。高度表呼啸着发 出一声不可能发出的音调,但我不能看显示,假如我看到的话,可能会晕厥过去。我现在正在被来自与各个方向的颗粒壮物击打着。

闪电在我四周闪耀着, 照亮了左右上下的灰暗深处。每隔几秒钟就会有雷声跟随着一个闪电传来。雷电到底离我有多远呢?如果被一点点的雷电击中,我会立刻变成油炸过的样子。 Davor,唯一使你生还的机会就是雷电的零击中率,百分之百的零击中率,接受这个事实吧。我蜷曲身体成胎儿的样子,绝望地向上帝祈祷救救我吧。会不会有 很多人来参加我的葬礼?最简单的一死了之的方法就是缺氧昏迷,然后掉进副伞中自由下落,猛烈地撞击大地。我父亲的住处离Rjeka不远,他知不知道我在这 里呢?就在他头顶的天空中,他的唯一的儿子,在度过他生命中的最后一刻?

接着,其他的想法闪现在我脑海中:Davor,你都在想些什么啊!你不能 放弃,你还活着呢,是否已经做了你所能做的一切去拯救你呢?我快速地扫了一眼高度表,6000米!在这样的高度,我要么会缺氧昏迷,要么就被冻僵了。我下 意识地开始加快呼吸,吸入更多的氧气分子,避免缺氧而昏厥。空气开始变的奇冷。我在近20000英尺的高空只穿着夏装,寒风猛烈地吹打着,我快冻僵了。我 不能向寒冷让步。我想起我的朋友Kalman,他在喜马拉雅山的Pisang峰被雪崩覆盖,虽然一条腿断了,但他还是活了下来。他当时只有一个强烈的欲 望:他不能屈服于寒冷,绝对不能放弃!Davor,不许有感到寒冷的奢侈念头,你现在不能屈服于寒冷!
我还会上升多高呢?还会持续多久呢?我现在 在哪里?我什么时候会从云中落在什么地方?我再次冷静下来。我想,对,现在只是那些细微的意味着生与死的不同之处的事情。而且,你还有意识和身体完好,你 还能为自己做些什么吗?伞衣把你包裹的好吗?我腾出右手,从背面把伞布往前拉,以便把我包裹地更好,几乎耗尽了我最后的一分力量。我感到很虚弱。如果真的 昏迷了,重要的是保证不要窒息。我移动头的位置到胸前悬挂着,这样即使我丧失了意识也能呼吸。下一步,重要的是保证不被冻僵。我又检查了以便包裹着我的伞 衣。伞衣把我完整地保护了起来。我假装昏厥过去了一会,双手放松,看上去状况很好。富余出来的伞衣会不会发生缠绕呢?
积雨云以20米/秒的速率把 我撕裂到6500米的高度。这个高度的寒冷简直无法忍受。最糟糕的是冰冷的寒风从我的后背和座带之间吹过,而后背和座带之间并没有完全保护好。座带上的腿 带切入我大腿的腹股沟,阵阵刺痛传遍全身,但这和其他的相比算不了什么。副伞旋转着从各个方向牵拉着我,。我不知道副伞是在我上面还是下面。反正我并不在 乎副伞怎么样。

后来,我开始下降,下降速率从3米/秒--17米/秒。当我下降到3300米时,又被顶起到5500米的高度,然后又开始 下降。突然,我眼前看到了什么东西--地球。我简直不敢相信我的眼睛。我又看到了希望,也许我会活下来。地球,大地母亲,她还在,就在眼前啊,我在看着大 地啊,我在向大地直扑而去。多么美丽的湖泊,森林,大自然啊。冰雹几乎是水平地打过来,融化、变暖,慢慢地变成雨水。但是副伞已经被压得弯曲变形了,螺旋 着失去了控制。
现在的情况完全和先前不一样了。我现在全神贯注地考虑该如何着陆。我费劲地把包裹着我的伞衣展开,部分地张开主伞,多多少少也许能 减慢一点我的降落速度, 但是我把我自己包裹得太严实了。眼下我的情况可真是太可怕了,我朝着一排电线和一片燃烧过的树丛飞去,烧过的树叉裸露着,尖锐地指向空中的各个方向。噢, 不。穿过去后,我会不会挂在电线上结束我的一生,或者被树叉象长矛一样给刺穿?Davor,别期望会有什么奇迹出现使你毫发无损。我翻滚着向地面冲去,就 象在高速公路上开车一样,伸展直身体,尽量并紧双腿,准备落地后翻滚。我从电线上空数米处冲了过去,座带的保护气袋撞在了一棵树上,吸收了部分撞击力。我 双脚站立,和冷冻了一样,浑身湿透,又惊又怕,然而我还活着,一点都没有受伤。看上去简直不可能!我冻得浑身直打哆嗦,就象雨里的猫和狗一样。我查看了 Top Nav导航表的记录,从进云位置到着陆地点,整整飞了21公里。

我蹒跚着走上公路,站在路中间,竖起大拇指拦车,但过往车辆只是 围着我转一圈,然后就走了。我浑身发抖,继续往前走,我想Davor啊,你看上去就象一个森林怪物,浑身湿透,脑后勺顶着一个大包,包上挂满树叶,手里握 着一束尼龙绳。疯子才会让你搭车。我停下来放松放松,现在不再是生与死的问题了。不久,我发现了一个村庄,看到了生命的迹象,终于有人了!我穿过附近的墓 地,来到一所新房子前。这里有生命的迹象:一辆儿童车,一辆汽车,还有农活工具和草料。我拖着疲惫的身躯来到第一个门前,按响门铃,又敲门。一个男人开了 门,我止不住内心的激动:"请原谅,我是飞滑翔伞的,被吸进雷雨云了。我现在很冷,能在这里给我的朋友打一个电话吗?请帮帮我..."Branko Rabar把我领进他的家,他可真是太伟大了!我给了他组委会的电话。他的妻子用一顶毛毯把我裹起来取暖。我说"我能在这里和你们讲话可真是一个奇 迹..."我冲了一个热水澡,热水冲刷走了一切脏物,汗水,恐惧和震惊。我们坐在阳台上喝着茶,阳光明媚,天空如水晶一样透蓝,我下午与之抗衡过的雷雨 云,一点迹象都没有。现在是下午4点整,仅仅我进云后一个半小时,新的一天又开始了。

其他人... 我的教练Danko做了一连串的螺旋下降,最后降落在一块草地上。Karlo接近地面时进入了旋转,在30米高度扔出副伞,副伞勉勉强强地打开了。主伞挂 在了高压线塔上撕碎了,分担了一部分他的重量,所以他也没有受伤。Srecko把一侧的组带都给拉到另一侧了,创造了滑翔伞的一个新动作。伞翼进入平直的 螺旋下降,他一直保持了20分钟,才保证他一直在云底而没有进云。事后好几天,他的胳膊都难受,好象不是他的一样。Radovan做了双边,只有中间极少 数几个气室是张开的,还是以10米/秒的速度上升,最终还是被乱流给甩了出来。由于紧张和迷惑,他没能及时恢复主伞翼形,重重地撞击在地面,他遭到了严重 的挫伤和踝骨扭伤,难以置信的是没有太大危险。 Kruno拉了全失速,但当他恢复时,主伞缠绕成嘛团状,于是抛出副伞。雷雨云饶恕了他。但他却收不回主伞,重重地落在地上,脊椎骨受到挤压,但是没有其 他更严重的受伤。Leo遇到了和我遇到的一样的情况。他没有抛副伞,因为他穿了一套滑雪服,但一直保持着用双脚插在A组带上,拉着扣前沿把伞给拉下来了, 掉进了Uca湖附近的一片树林里。



特技动作指南(译: 尹大虾)

翻译: 尹大虾(parafly)

本文部分内容由Michel Verhagen http://www.acromania.nl/ 授权,部分由 LEVENT YURDAY撰写,中文部分parafly编译;如有转贴请表明原作者(因为原来向前面两位声明过)


排列没有按动作难度排列,难度顺序稍后提供;大部分动作在http://www.acromania.nl/ 上有视频教学

First time to try heli at least you should be 1000 m or more(because if any trouble u need to do stall to lead out)

pull the brakes until the deep stall limit and wait couple second after pull the brakes,because glider can not stop immediately need to losing the speed,thats why pull the brakes until deep stall limit and wait until ur glider became slower

after your glider speed becomes slow,(deep stall limit)release the one side brake(right or left,your choice) *speed and length of releasing brake is changing for every glider.I cant know ur glider,u should try urself

For Helicopter .. never never never release the other side brake always keep it in same point.if u release it,u should prepaire urself for the fastest spin..
直升机其实就是一种处于可控状态的水平螺旋(spin)--即在非常低的速度下,失速速度下的spin;伞以自身的 立轴为轴心旋转,而飞行员处于伞的正下 方一起旋转;在动作中,伞看起来像直升机的旋翼一样转动,故得名:直升机;该动作的垂直速度非常低,大约为在1.3米/秒到2米/秒之间。
The helicopter is nothing more than a controlled flat spin (spinning the glider at stall point, very low speed). The wing rotates along the center of the glider while the pilot is straight below the glider. During the maneuver the glider acts like a helicopter. The vertical speed is very low, usually somewhere between -1.3 and -2.0

Sit up straight,and try to keep your legs stabile under the harness.Slow down the glider, just until deep stall point. than release right brake, don’t release all in ur first try keep %10-15 ,check if not enough release more if too fast pull more
Be CAREFUL helicopter is not like spin ,after ur glider start to turn check it,u should turn under ur glider same speed as your ur wing turning,if ur wing turning faster than u and if one side down and other side up.u r spinning,,be careful
while u r doing heli glider should be flat top of u and only ears can be collapse(nowhere else)The safest way to exit the helicopter is to full stall the glider and lead out the full stall.or u can give ur weight shift to side that u released the brake and try to pull more brake to control and stop turning
NEVER NEVER NEVER release the brake that you r keeping stall limit,if u release it,prepaire urself to a fastest spin because ur glider will dive so fast to front of u or under ,even u can be packed or ur gliders riser can hit ur helmet and if u r lucky u can dive in the middle of ur two riser..
good luck thats all,

是 有一个特技小组Safety Acro Team (SAT) 发明,所以以其缩写作为这个动作的名称;这个动作的另外一个名称是"Satellite" (卫星)。在此动作过程中,飞行员向后转动,而伞头向前转动,旋转中心位于人与伞头之间(故名卫星)。土星有很多变化:比如普通土星,单手土星,非对称土 星,节奏土星,筋斗土星,母牛土星(母牛??)
the SAT was invented by the Safety Acro Team (SAT),other names are the "Satellite" . During the maneuver the pilot turns negative (backwards) and the glider turns positive (forwards). The center of rotation is in the middle of the pilot and the glider. The SAT has a lot of variations: normal SAT, 1-handed SAT, asymmetric SAT, rhythmic SAT, tumbling, Cow SAT
以右进入为例:如同进入右螺旋一样,带右刹车,重心右 移,就在伞要进入螺旋的时候(就是突然进入螺旋锁定状态)而未进的一刻,将重心极大的压向右边(左手 推左主带,尽量将重量全部压到右边),同时右手刹车猛的拉下。(levnet:我通常是将右手刹车在手上缠一圈半,免得往后拉的太远)
Enter a spiral dive making a right turn. Just before the glider accelerates into a spiral dive, weight shift extremely to the right (push yourself to the right by grabbing and pushing out the left riser with your left hand) and brake the right real hard (I take 1.5 wraps, so Don't need to pull the brake back that far).

Now the glider changes position: the gliders position is vertical with respect to the horizon. When u enter in SAT you don't need to push the left riser anymore,

Center yourself and let go of the right brake at the same time. Now lean a little bit to the left to prevent the glider entering into a spiral dive and bleed out the turn (by turning 360 degrees more). To prevent a small collapse on the lower wing tip, left brake a little bit during lead out. All brake inputs should be short but strong impulses.

In SAT, two dangers exist during entering:
- Lead in too soon

The glider doesn't have enough speed to enter SAT yet, but you are braking right pretty hard to get into SAT. The glider will spin instead of entering SAT. First learn how to lead out spins before trying this maneuver.
Lead in too late

The glider has too much speed to enter SAT, and will enter a very fast nose down spiral instead because you are pulling the right break real hard. First learn how to lead out nose down spirals before trying this maneuver.

The glider might enter a nose down spiral when you keep weight shifting to the right when you lead out the SAT. So don't do that. Please be aware that a nose down spiral is a very strong and stable spiral. This spiral wont come out if the pilot isnt doing anything to get it out!**sometimes even pilot can not do anything,
if something happend like this,u should use ur right and left brake to slower your vertical speed and soften ur attack angle..u should pull brakes like pumping..
As you can see from the above dangers, timing is very important when entering SAT. You might not succeed the first time you try the SAT, but once you've done it successfully, it's easy the next time.
SAT is the easiest and safest acro manouver,after practise,you can do it even lower altitudes,because sat (vertical) sink is less than spiral dive,but practise period should be so careful,and please before study acro,do ur siv and be professional first,especially stall,spin(+ & -) and spiral than begin to acro

Ground Spiral
The ground spiral (also called death spiral) is a normal spiral that you lead out just before hitting the ground really hard. If you control normal spirals very good, then this maneuver isn't really difficult. You just need iron balls, and you can NOT make a single mistake.
Lead in
I strongly advise you not to do this trick at all. If you do it, do it over water. This trick is also called DEATH spiral: FOR A REASON!!!
Start spiralling at around 50 meters above the ground. Don't spiral too fast, just enough to get you a little bit higher than the inner wingtip. Now spiral down to the ground.
Lead out
When you're about to hit the ground in 3 seconds, lead out the spiral in one or two 360 degree turns. You will now hover over the ground, and the glider will finally climb so you can land safely.
DEATH! If you forget to lead out, or you spiral too fast, you will most certainly die with incredible pain, even if doing this over water!
Remember in paragliding: height = safety. Ground = death. It's as simple as that/death.

Full Stall
I call this maneuver CTRL-ALT-DEL or reset. There are two buttons at the bottom of your harness, and you have to push them simultaneously to reset your glider. Whenever your glider is cravatted, and you can't get it out by picking some lines or collapsing half the wing, you use a full stall to solve the problem (but of course only if you have enough height). Sometimes a glider keeps flying great with a cravat, so if you can land it there's no need to full stall.
可以把这个动作类比为CTRL-ALT-DEL即是 热启动;这里有两个“摁钮”在吊袋下面,你必须(拉着刹车)两手同时摁着你就可以将你的伞“重起”了; 任何时候你进入卷夹(cravatte),只要你有高度,你就可以使用全失速改出;当然,有时候卷夹并不是特别影响你的飞行,你也没有必要一定使用全失速 改出,去着陆即可;

Lead in

First, make sure you are sitting straight up in your harness. Put your legs under your harness and try to keep them there during the maneuver. Ready? Pull down both brakes evenly. Either pull down both brakes fast until your arms are stretched and locked under your harness,

pull down the brakes to near stall point (slow down your glider) and then pull down the brakes until your arms are stretched. Now the glider collapses and starts to look like your grandmothers underwear. Don't panic; be sure to keep your arms locked and brakes down at all time. Once in full stall, keep it in full stall! Yeehaaa!

Lead out
In full stall, look at your glider. When you are not swinging anymore, and the glider is a little bit in front of you, release the brakes up to 30% brake. Control the glider, and release brakes entirely. Now control the surge (but don't brake too much, let it fly, it needs to pick up speed, just don't let it dive too far, 45 degrees is okay!).
It's best to keep the full stall in a couple of seconds until you are not swinging anymore, but there's also a faster way: Most gliders are in front of you for a small period of time when you just entered a full stall. If you immediately follow the lead out procedure during this small period, you can lead out a full stall within split seconds after leading it in. The big advantage is of course less height loss in this maneuver.


When entering a full stall, you will swing forward because of your momentum. The glider brakes faster then you can, so at the beginning of the full stall maneuver, the glider will be behind you. NEVER EVER RELEASE THE BRAKES WHEN THE GLIDER IS BEHIND YOU! Imagine what will happen then: you release the brakes, the glider starts to fly again and wants to pick up speed. The glider surges forward and at the mean time, you swing back under the glider. Because the glider is already surging and you now have backwards momentum, the glider will be somewhere below you, and you will swing backwards over the glider. At some point there will be a balance in surging and swinging energy and you will fall down, maybe even IN your glider. They call this a gift-wrap, but I'll assure you, it's not a nice present to send home to your mother.
进入全失 速后,由于惯性你会抡到伞的前面,毕竟伞停止的比你快,所以在刚进入失速的时候,伞会在你的后面,所以千万,千万,千万不要在伞头在你后面的时候 松开刹车!如果这个时候松开了刹车,你可以想象一下,伞头会猛烈前冲,加上开始的摆动的惯性,你摆起来的势能,伞头甚至会冲到你脚地下,被包了饺子;也有 人称之为“礼品包”,不过俺可以保证,这肯定不是一个好礼品包回家给母亲的。

Sometimes, it can be pretty difficult to keep your arms locked down, and it might happen that one hand comes up. When this happens, immediately pull down that hand again. If you don 't get that hand down fast enough, the glider probably spinned real fast and now you are twisted a couple of times. Lead out the full stall as fast as you can, and see if the glider starts flying. If it's going into a spiral, immediately throw your reserve! If it's flying straight, "cycle" out the twist by moving your legs or grabbing the risers above the twist and pushing them out. If it doesn't fly at all, or spins real fast, you are probably twisted more than two times, and the brakes are stuck so you keep full stalling. So now what? Throw your reserve!!!

有些时候,很难将自己的手锁定在吊袋下面,可能是一只手被拽上 去了,如果是这样,赶紧拉下来;如果没有很快的拉下来,伞很可能进入高速水平螺旋,而且进入 主带缠绕;此时尽快改出全失速,看看伞是否恢复了飞行,如果进入了高速螺旋,赶紧抛备份伞;如果恢复了正常飞行,抓住主带,消除主带的缠绕;如果水平螺旋 (spin)太快活或者主带缠绕超过两圈,ok,备份伞!

动 作表现是当你做这个动作的时候,伞的形状看起来象倒置的马掌,或者说U;动作要领是,向上找出你左右A组最里面的伞绳,松开刹车,伸手尽量向上抓住这两 根A组最内侧的伞绳,然后均匀柔和的拉下,直到两侧翼尖向前碰到一起;在此过程中,伞中间的几个气室会塌陷,翼两侧向前,成U型
Glider looks like a horseshoe or U when u r doing this.. look ur inner A line(in right and left side) and let it go ur brakes,grab inner A lines from high as possible than pull ..pull down smoothly until wingtips come together..when u start to pull.. some middle cells will collapse and wing will move forward than come together.
Exit:just release the lines…..after you released the lines,if ur wing not recover itself,pull both brakes smoothly at the same time(as pomp)
Don’t pull A line so fast,if u pull a lot and fast,wing tips can be entangled to eachother..

During this maneuver the glider to be flying backwards for a small period of time.
ENTER: From normal flight, search for stall point(be a very sensitive, that point is just in the middle of stall and deep stall point….pull the brakes until that point keep stabile,then pull little brake(5-10cm) than release until that point again(quickly).. . Now the glider will fly backwards.
Just release the brakes and control the surge(same as deep stall,stall exit).
Asymmetric Spiral
非 对称螺旋就是摆荡的时候只是在一侧摆荡的动作,即不是轮流左右转动,只是转向一侧。 The asymmetric spiral is a spiral on its side. It's actually the same as a wing-over to one side. So instead of switching left and right turns, you only do turns to one side.
做非对称螺旋的最简单方式是由摆荡进入,以右侧非对称螺旋为例:在右转改出之后,正要向左移动重心, 拉左刹车的时候,你再次向右转。你向一侧移动重心和拉 刹车的时机为人摆荡到伞的正下方的时候,此时你会摆入一个非常快的转弯,在转过180度之后,送回刹车,并且重心回中,让伞直线下冲,下冲到最低点的时 候,再次重心右压,带右刹车,如此重复即可。The easiest way to enter an asymmetric spiral is by doing wing-overs. just as you would turn the wing-over to the left (when coming out the right-turned wing-over), you turn again to the right. The moment you weight shift is just before you are at the lowest point (straight under your glider), and you add brake (la lot) at the moment you are straight under your glider. You will now swing up making a very fast turn. Keep the glider turning for 180 degrees, then release brakes and weight shift to the left to get a straight dive. Just before the lowest point weight shift to the right. At the lowest point add full brake to the right and repeating this sequence.
EXIT:Bleed out in a couple of 360 degree turns. (YOU NEED ALTITUDE !!)


When you do a loop you swing over the length of the glider (roll over).its kind of wingover,just the fast and huge one.
While u r doing wingovers if u can increase the energy gradually you can do loop. You need huge amounts of weight shift to get into loops. It's not a matter of moving your leg over the other; it's a matter of trying to roll out of your harness and sitting entirely on one side of your ass. Another way of leading in an inversion or a chain of inversions is by simply reversing the direction of the asymmetric spiral.When the asymmetric spiral feels right, is really high and you are feeling confident, just pretend you were doing wing-overs and reverse the turn direction.

As long as you have enough energy, you can keep reversing the turn direction and do loops. . When the energy to do an other loop is gone, bleed out the remaining energy by doing a couple of 360 degree turns.
**BEFORE trying this u should be good at spin and stall,in your first try,if u pull lot brake without good weight shifting,you can enter the spin or can be packed…especially for looping,,you can use HOOK KNIFE that,if u pack,its only kind of knife that can helps u..

Dynamic Full Stall

A dynamic full stall is performing a full stall when the glider is behind the pilot.
首 先进入螺旋,在螺旋改出的时候,不降低螺旋的能量(即比较猛,比较快的改出);此时伞会剧烈的爬高,(攻角增大),伞头落在你的后面,需要注意的是一定保 证伞的爬升是绝对对称的,(伞的滚转角为零,bank angle=0)就在伞即将达到最高点的时候,将刹车拉到底,进入全失速;保持失速一直到你摆荡到伞的下面。
Enter a spiral dive. Exit the spiral dive without bleeding the energy out in a couple of 360 degree turns. The glider will now climb extremely, and the glider is behind the pilot. Be sure to stabilize the glider so the climb is absolutely symmetric. Just before reaching the highest point, full stall the glider. Keep it in full stall until you swing back under the glider.
Because of your momentum, you will swing under and then behind the glider, so the glider will be in front of you. Release the full stall at the moment you are furthest behind the glider. Of course, you can also keep the full stall in until the pendulum is gone, but with a dynamic full stall that will take a lot of time and you should be good at stall..
Difficult point is
Its more difficult than stall because..you r stalling the wing while it was ur back... It will be a lot harder to keep your arms locked because you r falling down, and you will have to absorb the shock of your body weight on the glider. Also a strong symmetric front stall or asymmetric forward surge is likely when leading out the dynamic full stall.


The asymmetric SAT is a SAT on its side. The pilot turns sideways over the glider. Another name for asymmetric SAT is dynamic SAT.
Enter asymmetric spiral than when the time comes enter SAT at the same moment you would turn again to make another asymmetric spiral turn.
Same as SAT..if u r trying first prepaire urself for big cravatte..
Same as helicopter, twister is while u r doing helicopter changing the direction of rotation..
While helicoptering, pull both brakes to stall point (you will probably only brake the positive turning side, as the
negative turning side brake is already at stall point position). The rotation now stops and the glider parachutes down. Now lead-in a helicopter again, exchanging left and right.


Coconut Spin

Coconut spin is doing spin while leading out the sat..
以 右侧进入为例:先进入土星,在稳定的土星状态下将右刹车拉下更多,(动作量越大越猛烈,可可豆spin就越猛烈),保持右手刹车量进入稳定状态。Pull right brake and Enter sat first,while u r doing stabile sat,pull more right brake(pull more right brake (the faster and deeper you do this, the more violent the Coconut Spin). Now the glider will spin. Keep the right brake down.
SAME AS dynamic full stall.. or try to enter and keep ur wing to helicopter,then exit ..

Mac Twist

The Mac Twist is one of the most violent looking maneuvers at this moment. A Mc Twist is actually a very fast spin of the glider, but on its side.
Mac Twist是现在特技动作中看起来最猛的一个动作,

Enter a right turning spiral dive. Lead it out without bleeding out the energy. The glider will climb extremely, and the glider will be far behind you. Just after the glider starts to climb, grab the left riser, make yourself as small as possible, be ready to turn with your glider and pull right brake full down. The glider will now spin while it's behind you.
Exit is Like dynamic full stall,,but it s more dangereous..always exits mostly with big cravatte or reserve..

改出于动能全失速相同,但是更加危险,常常伴随着大的卷夹( cravatte)或者????

Misty Flip

这是Mac Twist的一种,但是改出的时候不进入全失速
It’s a kind off Mc twist without fullstall exit
进入向同Mc Twist
Same as Mc Twist.

在 伞前缘指向下的时候,松开右刹车。此时伞开始俯冲,恢复正常的飞行。如果伞的前缘指向天空的时候,你松开了沙查,这时候你的麻烦大了,伞会非常厉害的前 冲,无论是伞是倾斜的还是正正的向前冲,后果可能是包饺子了,或者是卷夹,卷夹螺旋;所以记住:决不要在伞头处于你后面的时候松开刹车!
Release the right brake when the leading edge of the glider is pointing down. The glider will start flying again, and will start to dive. You will follow the dive as you swing back under the glider. If you release the brakes when the leading edge is pointing up, glider can be attack so fast and u can get into trouble.."NEVER RELEASE THE BRAKES WHEN THE GLIDER IS BEHIND YOU! When the leading edge is pointing to either side, or not entirely straight down, you're also in trouble. The glider will easily develop cravattes, and enter cravatted spirals

Rhythmic SAT (tumbling)

Rhytmic SAT is kind of SAT that changing the direction to tumbling...

Enter SAT. Once you're in SAT, let go of the upper brake a bit (start leading the SAT out, but not entirely) and pull brake in again. Repeat this in a rhythmic manner and the amplitude of the change will get bigger and bigger. If you continue to do this, the SAT will transfer into tumbling. Sometimes it works, sometimes not.


后 筋斗是一个非常高速刺激的动作,在此动作正下方中飞行员在伞的向后翻筋斗。tumbling is a very dynamic maneuver where the pilot is looping backwards over the center of the glider.
Start making big wing-overs, progress to loops. Enter SAT(same direction as you would make the wing-over) at the moment you would make another big wing-over OR LOOP


Enter asymmetric spiral turning to the left. If you have enough energy to loop, enter SAT to the right at the moment you would do the loop. Using the asymmetric spiral as lead in to tumbling results in very powerful tumblings (the pilot is passing the glider vertically after first turn over the canopy).
Usually the energy is drained after one tumble over the glider. Depending on the situation, you might choose for full stall exit or some other way suitable at that moment.
通常在一个后筋斗之后动能会消失不少, 根据实际情况,你可以使用全失速改出,或者其他合适的方式改出。

PWC 规则点滴

1 前言


2 简介

2.1 比赛时间

2.2 任务

2.3 参赛选手

2.4 保险

2.5 参赛人数

2.6 地域性规则

2.7 滑翔伞
A) 经过AFNOR或DHV认证的滑翔伞
B) 未经过任何认证的滑翔伞
    a) 滑翔伞序列号
    b) 滑翔伞负载测试证书
    c) 制造商的证书,以表明该伞具符合ANFO competition标准
    d) 制造商授权给参赛者本人试飞该伞具的证书


3 PWC任务


4 世界杯排名
5 团队奖
6 国家奖
7 注册
8 注册费
9 参赛人数
10 赞助商
11 语言

12 任务委员会(TC)


12.1 委员会职责

12.2 委员长
  指定任务内容是委员长的特权,他必须对该地的飞行环境极为熟悉,委员长在他人的协助下工作,并监督整个任务。如果委员长缺席 技术代表(TD) 将取而代之。

13 通告
14 成绩公告
15 意见、抗议与控诉
16 陪审团

17 飞行与安全

17.1 遵从当地法律

17.2 飞行限制

17.3 伞具损坏

17.4 应急装备

17.5 健康

17.6 避免撞伞

17.7 云中飞行

17.8 配重

17.9 额为协助

17.10 通讯器材

17.11 GPS
18 起飞
18.1.1 起飞场
18.1.2 优秀飞行员优先权
18.2 开窗
18.3 窗口延长
18.4 重赛
18.5 GPS记录方式(开窗方式)





19 着陆
19.1 终止线

19.2 终止时间

19.3 安全报告

19.4 计时与比赛截止时间


19.5 成绩汇报截止时间

20 任务种类

20.1 Race to Goal 指定目标比赛

20.2 Speed to Goal 竞速比赛

21 折转点、扇区与终止线

22 任务记录(GPS记录)

32 计分方式

32.1 距离计算

32.2 时间

32.3 计分公式

时间基数= 抵达终点的参赛者 / 参赛者总数 x 1000



CX Mgz专栏文章 Icaristics:大耳朵

原作:Bruce Goldsmith  












Steve Ham 给于本文一个很完美的总结:“永远不要在你叠伞之前破坏伞型”。

By 拷贝猫:

原作者Bruce Goldsmith是一位天才飞行员,他是世界顶尖的竞赛飞行员并设计过许多伞翼。其实Bruce本身是一位专业工程师,也是Airwave品牌的创造者之一。他设计的第一顶伞Black Magic于1989年问世,之后他设计了Taboo, Voodoo, Jive, Samba, Duet, Rave, Rave Race, Alto XM, Harmony, XMX, Fusion, XXX 和 Duplex。其中XXX曾经在 World Championships(世界锦标赛)法国站中获得一举囊括前三名,Bruce在次年获得了英国冠军。
接下来的18个月中Bruce离开了Airwave着手创建Ozone,作为Ozone的设计者,Bruce设计了一些列成功的伞翼,包括Electron, Proton, Cosmic Rider 和 Octane。1999年Bruce使用自己设计的Proton(质子)在PWC世界杯系列赛事中独占鳌头,最终获得总冠军。
在2000年3月Bruce离开了Ozone公司,回到了他的“故乡”--Airwave。十多年来,Burce一直在为Cross Country杂志撰写专栏Icaristics。Bruce也曾经与Barney Barnes合作拍摄过一部安全题材的滑翔伞电影"Instability"(不稳定性)。


剧本: Rob Whittall


我们的飞行员Edward在过去的4年中有300小时飞行记录,去年他开始飞一顶DHV 2类伞,目前使用该伞已经有50个飞行小时。他的个人越野记录是去年夏天在阿尔卑斯山脉创下的65km。Edward是一个典型的周末飞行员,由于妻子的阻挠他仅在为数不多的周末和节假日飞行。他热衷于热力飞行,但是当空气变得躁动时他会变得紧张。





① Edward没有去查看天气预报,如果他看过他就会注意到当天下午会有一个逆温层(inversion)被打破。[拷贝猫:中国天气预报没这么精确吧?]这就是为什么热气流突然间变得强烈的原因。他也会注意到一个锋面会在下午晚些时候来到。

② 自我就是最大的敌人。当你飞行时你的唯一目标就是安全愉快的飞行。你可以用你的余生来打破记录。永远不要给自己制定目标增加压力。你的身体会通过各种不舒服的反应告诉你周围发生了什么,要聆听你的感觉,你的身体警告你进入了一个不可靠的空域。在你没有能力驾驭之前不要进入这种空域。

③ 仍旧是自我,这回还有其他人。永远不要用其他人的行为来推动自己。Winston也经飞行了七年,他拥有超过1200小时的飞行记录并且在全世界飞行和比赛过。每个人都是在按照自己的准则在飞行,永远不要用其他人的标准来衡量自己。或许别人也正处于危险之中。

④ 所有的警告信号都出现了,但是Edward还是继续飞行--这是最大的错误。当你无法享受飞行时就应该立刻终止飞行。如果你超出自己的极限,接下来你会犯越来越多的错误,恐惧会影响你的判断力,身体动作会变形,协调能力会丧失。试着呼吸,试着防松,保持冷静并立刻着手着陆。提早回到地面是避免本次事故的最好方法。

⑤ 从座袋中坐出来不会对你有任何帮助,相反的,你失去了对伞翼的感觉。你可以在日常飞行中坐到座袋的前沿去感觉一下那样飞行的滋味。在非常的时刻离开你熟悉的位置会带来很糟糕的结果。

⑥ 恢复操作,只有在你明白你要做什么的情况下做出恢复动作,否则你最好什么也别做。直到今天人们还在教授针对飞行中伞翼塌陷后保持方向的技巧--移动中心和拉刹车。这个理论听起来很好但是在实际发生问题时很难正确地做出。

我仅仅在非常接近地面或者有可能撞到某人的情况下使用强制方向控制。其他情况下我只是让伞做它想做的事情(旋转,摆荡)直至恢复到稳定状态(有可能是螺旋下降),然后我可以正常飞行。[注:某些伞翼在Spiral Drive(螺旋下降)中不干预是无法改出的,因为Spiral Drive是正常飞行姿态,而不是塌陷。]
⑦ 时间和高度在山区会迅速流逝。头脑在发生状况时很容易混乱,你经常会忘了你在哪里。不要总是盯着你塌陷的伞翼看浪费时间。一定要对高度保持警惕,高度是你的生命。
最后。 Edward没有抛出备份伞!他的余生都在后悔为什么当时没有抛出备份伞。我今天能在这里工作的主要原因是我从来不害怕使用我的副伞。当你从超过100米的高度坠落而备份伞仍旧在袋子中时,你是在浪费金钱。使用备份伞没有坏处而且备份伞工作得很好。所以在你认为局面失控的时候立刻使用备份伞。这就是你为什么带着它的原因。
记住,在DHV测试中,任何DHV 2类的伞翼都可以在飞行员不干预的情况下自我恢复。我告诉我认识的每一个业余滑翔伞爱好者,在发生状况的时候他们能做的最正确的事情就是什么也不做,直到伞翼恢复到一个他们熟悉的状况再进行操作。这听起来很奇怪,但是不操作要比多度干预的后果好得多。
一定要安全飞行 -- Rob

原作者Rob Whittall,负责OZONE公司的滑翔伞的设计、测试、教学和参与竞赛。Rob已经飞翔了15年,至今飞翔的热情依然如故。

注1:Spiral Drive(螺旋下降)是一种正常的飞行状态!并不是本文所说的伞翼塌陷,许多型号的伞翼具有“死螺旋”倾向,即在螺旋中松开刹车后,如果不移动重心人工干预伞翼自己不会改出。

注2:DHV 2-3或更高级伞翼的飞行员与本文无关,因为2-3类伞必须人工干预才能恢复。








当时一共三个兄弟,云海的UP DHV2-3被打进了一大堆眼花缭乱的特技动作之中。于洋大虾迫降在几十公里之外。



作者: titan01 (老邓) 2003/05/30 17:39


伞头的保养: 为了防止伞头的过早老化,应该注意以下几点。

(1).尽量减少阳光的照射 无论伞头还是座袋尽可能在临近起飞前再从伞包里拿出,飞行结束后尽快折叠好伞头,避免紫外线无谓的照射。同时,避免伞包在车中的长期放置;即使是伞包也尽量避开紫外线的照射,放置于阴凉处。长期保存有条件的话采用有铝薄膜的苫布或袋子罩好。

(2).不让伞头受热 通常大多数人习惯将伞包至于汽车的后备箱,夏季车内达到80-100度,因此要注意。不飞伞的日子,要将伞包放回家中或俱乐部保管。

(3).伞头沾水后要尽快除去水分。 被露、雨、雪弄湿伞具后,要将其至于通风阴凉处晾干;千万不要晒干。也决不能用热吹风机吹干。

(4).不要强力或在同一处反复折叠伞头和伞绳 将伞头折叠进伞包时,请勿每次都折叠相同部位。伞绳不要打结,不要出现锐角弯曲,尽可能伞绳以圆滑的状态置于伞头内。将伞绳打结会使伞绳的强度降低,严重时产生伞绳内部断裂,会使伞绳的强度降低40%-60%。 每次结束飞行后检查伞绳,外表有无轳皮,有无内部断裂,内部断裂的检查方法为:将伞绳绕一个直径为200mm的圆圈,如果是圆滑的圈,那么这一段内部是完好的,如果出现不规则的圆,则有可能在锐角产生处有内部断裂。应该及时更换。

(5).被污损时的处理 基本采用水洗和阴干的方法。被海水浸湿时,要用淡水洗净后阴干。被水田或旱田的泥水污染后,也要及时除去含有化肥及农药的污染物。清洗时可用柔软的布、海绵、软刷来进行。如需用洗液时,也要用被稀释后的中性洗涤剂,及时用净水漂洗干净,阴干。 伞绳的胞衣遇水会适当收缩,因此,尽力避免伞绳被水浸泡,伞绳的内部材料害怕盐份,要注意。另外,决不能使用有机溶剂(如稀料、苯类等等)清洗伞具。这会大大地加快材料的老化。

(6).伞具的保存场所 要选择通风好、湿气少、凉爽、没有日照的地方。伞包及伞具上不能重压,常时间的荷重会使伞头及伞绳老化加快。在潮湿的季节,应适时打开伞包除去湿气。